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List of US National and International Antitrust bilateral agreements and cooperative arrangements

There have been several bilateral agreements and cooperative arrangements in the field of antitrust enforcement that the United States has entered into with other countries aimed to enhance cooperation, information sharing, and coordination between antitrust authorities. Below is a list of these antitrust international bilateral agreements and cooperative arrangements.


These laws vary by jurisdiction, but they generally aim to protect consumers and ensure that competition is not hindered or distorted. To avoid violating monopoly rules, companies like BlackRock are required to adhere principles of market competition, regulatory compliance, disclosure and transparency, and working to avoid anti-competitive behavior.

  1. Market competition: BlackRock operates in a highly competitive industry where numerous other investment management firms exist. While it is a significant player, there are many other companies offering similar services.

  2. Regulatory compliance: BlackRock operates within the regulatory frameworks established by financial authorities in the countries where it operates. It must comply with applicable laws, rules, and regulations governing the financial industry, including those related to antitrust and competition.

  3. Disclosure and transparency: BlackRock provides disclosure and transparency to its clients and investors, offering information about its investment strategies, fees, and potential conflicts of interest. This helps ensure that clients can make informed decisions and fosters transparency within the industry.

  4. Avoiding anti-competitive behavior: BlackRock, like other companies, must avoid engaging in anti-competitive practices that could harm consumers or hinder fair competition. This includes activities such as price-fixing, market allocation, or abuse of market power.

While antitrust laws can be complex, and their application may vary depending on the specific circumstances and legal jurisdiction it is time to question whether government authorities responsible for enforcing these laws are carefully examining the conduct of companies to ensure compliance with the rules. For now, we will focus on the US system of enforcement and oversight of antitrust laws which primarily fall under the jurisdiction of two government agencies:

  1. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC): The FTC is an independent federal agency responsible for promoting consumer protection and preventing anti-competitive business practices. The current Chair, Lina M. Khan (Democrat) has the authority to enforce antitrust laws, investigate potential violations, and take legal action against companies engaged in anti-competitive behavior. It reviews mergers and acquisitions, conducts investigations, and enforces regulations related to unfair methods of competition and deceptive trade practices.

  2. The Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ): The Antitrust Division is a branch of the U.S. Department of Justice enforced by Assistant Attorney General, Johnathan Kanter, (party unknown). The DOJ Antitrust Division is responsible for enforcing federal antitrust laws and prosecuting violations by investigating and litigating cases related to anti-competitive conduct, monopolies, mergers, and other violations of antitrust laws. The DOJ works in collaboration with the FTC to ensure effective enforcement of antitrust regulations.

While the FTC and the DOJ are the primary agencies responsible for enforcing antitrust laws, other federal agencies, such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) overseen by Brendan Carr (Republican) and the Department of Commerce overseen by U.S. Secretary Gina M. Raimondo (Democrat), also have jurisdiction over specific industries or sectors, particularly when it comes to telecommunications, broadcasting, and international trade. It's worth noting that the U.S. Congress also plays a role in shaping antitrust laws through legislation and oversight of the regulatory agencies.


The basics of antitrust laws:

  1. Prohibition of monopolies and abuse of market power: Antitrust laws seek to prevent the creation or abuse of monopolies, where a single company dominates a particular market and has significant control over prices, supply, and competition. Such dominance can harm consumers by limiting choices, driving up prices, and stifling innovation often restricting anti-competitive practices, including predatory pricing, exclusive dealing, tying arrangements, and other forms of monopolistic behavior.

  2. Prevention of anti-competitive agreements: Antitrust laws prohibit agreements between companies that restrain trade or restrict competition. These agreements can include price-fixing cartels, market allocation agreements, bid-rigging, and other collusive practices that reduce competition and harm consumers.

  3. Merger control: Antitrust laws often include provisions for regulating mergers and acquisitions to prevent the creation of monopolistic or anti-competitive market structures. Authorities review proposed mergers and acquisitions to ensure that they do not significantly reduce competition or harm consumers.

  4. Enforcement and penalties: Antitrust laws empower regulatory bodies, such as competition commissions or antitrust divisions, to enforce the regulations and investigate potential violations. If companies are found to be in violation of antitrust laws, they may face fines, injunctions, divestitures, or other penalties depending on the severity of the violation.

  5. International cooperation: Antitrust laws can have both domestic and international dimensions. Authorities may collaborate across jurisdictions to address anti-competitive practices that have cross-border implications, such as international cartels or mergers between multinational companies.


The Sherman Antitrust Act is a landmark legislation in the United States that was enacted in 1890 serving as the foundation for modern antitrust laws and is aimed at promoting fair competition and preventing monopolistic practices.


The key tenets of the Sherman Act include the following:

  1. Prohibition of contracts, combinations, and conspiracies in restraint of trade: Section 1 of the Sherman Act declares that any contract, combination, or conspiracy that unreasonably restrains trade or commerce among states or with foreign nations is illegal. This provision seeks to prevent agreements between companies that limit competition, such as price-fixing cartels, market allocation arrangements, and bid-rigging.

  2. Prohibition of monopolization and attempts to monopolize: Section 2 of the Sherman Act prohibits any person or company from monopolizing or attempting to monopolize trade or commerce. This provision aims to prevent the abuse of market power and the creation of monopolies that harm consumers and stifle competition. It makes it illegal to engage in anti-competitive practices that result in the exclusion or suppression of competition.

  3. Criminal and civil penalties: The Sherman Act provides for both criminal and civil penalties. Violations of the Sherman Act can result in criminal charges, leading to fines and imprisonment for individuals involved in antitrust violations. Additionally, the Act allows for civil actions, where injured parties can seek damages resulting from antitrust violations.

  4. Enforcement by the Department of Justice and private parties: The Department of Justice, through its Antitrust Division, has the authority to enforce the Sherman Act and bring legal actions against violators. Private parties, such as individuals or businesses, also have the right to sue for damages caused by antitrust violations under the Act.

  5. Extraterritorial reach: The Sherman Act can have extraterritorial reach, meaning it can apply to conduct occurring outside the United States if it has a substantial impact on U.S. commerce.

Since 1989, when President George H.W. Bush took office, several amendments and legislative actions have been made to the Sherman Antitrust Act in the United States.


Notable changes and developments:

  1. The Clayton Antitrust Act - 1914: Although not a direct amendment to the Sherman Act, the Clayton Act is closely related and complements it. The Clayton Act addresses specific anti-competitive practices, such as price discrimination, exclusive dealing, and tying arrangements. It also establishes regulations on mergers and acquisitions, including prohibiting acquisitions that may substantially lessen competition or tend to create a monopoly. This Act was amended by the Robinson-Patman Act, Pub. L. No. 74-692, 49 Stat. 1526, codified at 15 U.S.C. §§ 13, 13b, and 21a, and noted Hart-Scott-Rodino Act (HSR), adding Section 7A of the Clayton Act, is listed separately.

  2. Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act (HSR Act) - 1976: While not a direct amendment to the Sherman Act, the HSR Act introduced important changes to the pre-merger notification process. It requires companies to notify the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) before certain large mergers and acquisitions can proceed, allowing the agencies to review potential anti-competitive effects and take appropriate action.

  3. Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990: This act requires federal agencies, including those involved in antitrust enforcement, to adjust civil monetary penalties for inflation periodically. It ensures that civil penalties maintain their deterrent effect over time.

  4. National Cooperative Research and Production Act (NCRPA) - 1993: This act provides limited antitrust immunity for certain collaborative research and production activities undertaken by competing firms. It allows for research and development cooperation in certain industries while still ensuring competition. The Standards Development Organization Act of 2004, amending this Act, is listed separately.

  5. International Antitrust Enforcement Assistance Act - 1994: This act was enacted to facilitate international cooperation in antitrust enforcement. It allows U.S. authorities to assist and receive assistance from foreign authorities in antitrust investigations and enforcement actions, aiming to address anti-competitive conduct that crosses national borders.

  6. Community Development Banking and Financial Institutions Act (1994): This act included amendments to the Clayton Act to address antitrust concerns related to certain financial transactions. It provided exemptions from antitrust laws for certain mergers and acquisitions involving insured depository institutions if they served community development or public welfare goals

  7. Telecommunications Act - 1996: Although not specifically an amendment to the Sherman Act, the Telecommunications Act introduced significant changes to the regulation of the telecommunications industry. It aimed to foster competition and deregulate the industry, promoting entry and competition in various telecommunications markets.

  8. Financial Services Modernization Act (Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act) - 1999: This act repealed certain provisions of the Glass-Steagall Act and allowed for increased consolidation and integration between commercial banks, investment banks, and insurance companies. While not directly related to the Sherman Act, it had implications for competition and market structure within the financial services sector.

  9. Antitrust Modernization Commission Act of 2002: This act established the Antitrust Modernization Commission, which was tasked with studying and evaluating the state of antitrust laws and enforcement in the United States. The commission provided recommendations for modernizing antitrust laws and improving enforcement practices.

  10. Antitrust Criminal Penalty Enhancement and Reform Act (ACPERA) - 2004: ACPERA increased criminal penalties for antitrust violations and introduced a leniency program to encourage companies to self-report violations and cooperate with investigations. An act to encourage the development and promulgation of voluntary consensus standards by providing relief under the antitrust laws to standards development organizations with respect to conduct engaged in for the purpose of developing voluntary consensus standards, and for other purposes

  11. Class Action Fairness Act of 2005: This act expanded federal jurisdiction over certain class-action lawsuits, including those involving antitrust claims. It aimed to prevent forum shopping and ensure that large-scale antitrust cases are adjudicated in federal courts, promoting consistency and efficiency in antitrust litigation.

  12. Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (CARD Act): While primarily focused on consumer protection in the credit card industry, the CARD Act contains provisions related to antitrust. It restricts certain anti-competitive practices in the credit card market, such as prohibiting issuers from imposing restrictions on merchants that prevent them from offering discounts or incentives for using specific payment methods.

  13. Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010: While primarily focused on financial regulation, the Dodd-Frank Act includes provisions related to antitrust. It created the Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC) under the U.S. Treasury and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) under the U.S. Federal Reserve, which have roles in ensuring competition and protecting consumers in the financial sector.

  14. Music Modernization Act of 2018: This act addresses various aspects of music licensing and royalties, including provisions related to antitrust. It provides for collective licensing mechanisms and reforms to the music licensing process, aiming to promote competition, fairness, and efficiency in the music industry

  15. Defending American Security from Kremlin Aggression Act of 2019 (DASKAA): This act addresses national security concerns related to Russia and includes provisions related to antitrust enforcement. It authorizes the Department of Justice to consider the impact of foreign state-controlled entities on competition when reviewing potential mergers and acquisitions.


List of Antitrust International bilateral agreement and cooperative arrangements

  1. The Clayton Antitrust Act - 1914: Although not a direct amendment to the Sherman Act, the Clayton Act is closely related and complements it. The Clayton Act addresses specific anti-competitive practices, such as price discrimination, exclusive dealing, and tying arrangements. It also establishes regulations on mergers and acquisitions, including prohibiting acquisitions that may substantially lessen competition or tend to create a monopoly. This Act was amended by the Robinson-Patman Act, Pub. L. No. 74-692, 49 Stat. 1526, codified at 15 U.S.C. §§ 13, 13b, and 21a, and noted Hart-Scott-Rodino Act (HSR), adding Section 7A of the Clayton Act, is listed separately.

  2. Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act (HSR Act) - 1976: While not a direct amendment to the Sherman Act, the HSR Act introduced important changes to the pre-merger notification process. It requires companies to notify the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) before certain large mergers and acquisitions can proceed, allowing the agencies to review potential anti-competitive effects and take appropriate action.

  3. Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990: This act requires federal agencies, including those involved in antitrust enforcement, to adjust civil monetary penalties for inflation periodically. It ensures that civil penalties maintain their deterrent effect over time.

  4. National Cooperative Research and Production Act (NCRPA) - 1993: This act provides limited antitrust immunity for certain collaborative research and production activities undertaken by competing firms. It allows for research and development cooperation in certain industries while still ensuring competition. The Standards Development Organization Act of 2004, amending this Act, is listed separately.

  5. International Antitrust Enforcement Assistance Act - 1994: This act was enacted to facilitate international cooperation in antitrust enforcement. It allows U.S. authorities to assist and receive assistance from foreign authorities in antitrust investigations and enforcement actions, aiming to address anti-competitive conduct that crosses national borders.

  6. Community Development Banking and Financial Institutions Act (1994): This act included amendments to the Clayton Act to address antitrust concerns related to certain financial transactions. It provided exemptions from antitrust laws for certain mergers and acquisitions involving insured depository institutions if they served community development or public welfare goals

  7. Telecommunications Act - 1996: Although not specifically an amendment to the Sherman Act, the Telecommunications Act introduced significant changes to the regulation of the telecommunications industry. It aimed to foster competition and deregulate the industry, promoting entry and competition in various telecommunications markets.

  8. Financial Services Modernization Act (Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act) - 1999: This act repealed certain provisions of the Glass-Steagall Act and allowed for increased consolidation and integration between commercial banks, investment banks, and insurance companies. While not directly related to the Sherman Act, it had implications for competition and market structure within the financial services sector.

  9. Antitrust Modernization Commission Act of 2002: This act established the Antitrust Modernization Commission, which was tasked with studying and evaluating the state of antitrust laws and enforcement in the United States. The commission provided recommendations for modernizing antitrust laws and improving enforcement practices.

  10. Antitrust Criminal Penalty Enhancement and Reform Act (ACPERA) - 2004: ACPERA increased criminal penalties for antitrust violations and introduced a leniency program to encourage companies to self-report violations and cooperate with investigations. An act to encourage the development and promulgation of voluntary consensus standards by providing relief under the antitrust laws to standards development organizations with respect to conduct engaged in for the purpose of developing voluntary consensus standards, and for other purposes

  11. Class Action Fairness Act of 2005: This act expanded federal jurisdiction over certain class-action lawsuits, including those involving antitrust claims. It aimed to prevent forum shopping and ensure that large-scale antitrust cases are adjudicated in federal courts, promoting consistency and efficiency in antitrust litigation.

  12. Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (CARD Act): While primarily focused on consumer protection in the credit card industry, the CARD Act contains provisions related to antitrust. It restricts certain anti-competitive practices in the credit card market, such as prohibiting issuers from imposing restrictions on merchants that prevent them from offering discounts or incentives for using specific payment methods.

  13. Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010: While primarily focused on financial regulation, the Dodd-Frank Act includes provisions related to antitrust. It created the Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC) under the U.S. Treasury and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) under the U.S. Federal Reserve, which have roles in ensuring competition and protecting consumers in the financial sector.

  14. Music Modernization Act of 2018: This act addresses various aspects of music licensing and royalties, including provisions related to antitrust. It provides for collective licensing mechanisms and reforms to the music licensing process, aiming to promote competition, fairness, and efficiency in the music industry

  15. Defending American Security from Kremlin Aggression Act of 2019 (DASKAA): This act addresses national security concerns related to Russia and includes provisions related to antitrust enforcement. It authorizes the Department of Justice to consider the impact of foreign state-controlled entities on competition when reviewing potential mergers and acquisitions.

Additional policies that have influence upon the Clayton and Sherman Acts:

  1. Horizontal Merger Guidelines: The Department of Justice (DOJ) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) issue joint guidelines on horizontal mergers, which provide insights into the agencies' analytical frameworks and enforcement priorities. The guidelines have been revised over time to reflect changes in the marketplace and antitrust enforcement practices.

    1. DOJ 1982 Horizontal Merger Guidelines: The first set of Horizontal Merger Guidelines was issued in 1982. These guidelines established the basic framework for analyzing horizontal mergers and provided guidance on the agencies' methodology for evaluating the potential competitive effects of mergers. They focused on market definition, market concentration, and the potential for anti-competitive effects.

    2. DOJ 1992 Horizontal Merger Guidelines: The 1992 Horizontal Merger Guidelines updated the analysis of horizontal mergers based on economic and legal developments since the issuance of the 1982 guidelines. They clarified the agencies' approach to market definition, market concentration, and the evaluation of potential competitive effects. These Guidelines outline the present enforcement policy of the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission (the "Agency") concerning horizontal acquisitions and mergers ("mergers") subject to section 7 of the Clayton Act,

      1. (3) They describe the analytical framework and specific standards normally used by the Agency in analyzing mergers.

      2. (4) By stating its policy as simply and clearly as possible, the Agency hopes to reduce the uncertainty associated with enforcement of the antitrust laws in this area.

    3. 2010 Horizontal Merger Guidelines: The 2010 Horizontal Merger Guidelines reflected further advancements in economic thinking and merger analysis. These guidelines provided more detailed guidance on market definition, market concentration, unilateral effects, coordinated effects, and entry considerations. They also discussed the use of economic tools, such as the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), in merger analysis.

      1. The relevant statutory provisions include Section 7 of the Clayton Act,

        1. "Section 7 prohibits not only the acquisitions of “stock” but also the acquisitions of “assets” where “the effect of such acquisition may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly.”

        2. The original Section 7, enacted in 1914, only prohibited the acquisitions of “stock” of one corporation by another corporation, and, by its explicit term, it was not applied to the “assets” acquisitions. As a result, businesses found their ways to evade the prohibition by buying target corporation’s assets.

        3. Congress amended Section 7 to “plug [this] loophole”3 by passing the Celler-Kefauver Antimerger Act (Celler-Kefauver Act)."

      2. 15 U.S.C. § 1, 2, and Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act,

      3. 15 U.S.C. § 45.

      4. Most particularly, Section 7 of the Clayton Act prohibits mergers if “in any line of commerce or in any activity affecting commerce in any section of the country, the effect of such acquisition may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly.”

    4. FTC 2020 Vertical Merger Guidelines: In addition to horizontal merger guidelines, the DOJ and FTC issued Vertical Merger Guidelines in 2020. While focused on vertical mergers (combining firms at different stages of the supply chain), these guidelines also include important principles relevant to horizontal merger analysis. They address potential anti-competitive effects, efficiency considerations, and the evaluation of vertical merger cases.

  2. Vertical Merger Guidelines: In 2020, the DOJ and FTC issued revised guidelines on vertical mergers, providing guidance on how the agencies evaluate the potential competitive effects of mergers between companies operating at different levels of the supply chain. These guidelines help clarify the agencies' approach to assessing vertical mergers under the antitrust laws.

  3. Antitrust Guidelines for Collaborations Among Competitors: The DOJ and FTC have issued guidelines outlining how they evaluate collaborations among competitors, such as joint ventures or research and development agreements. These guidelines provide insights into the antitrust agencies' analysis of potential anti-competitive effects and the balancing of pro-competitive benefits.

  4. Intellectual Property Enforcement Guidelines: The DOJ and FTC have issued guidelines on the application of antitrust laws to intellectual property (IP) rights. These guidelines help clarify how the antitrust agencies evaluate the potential anti-competitive effects of IP-related conduct, such as licensing practices and patent litigation.

  5. International Cooperation: There has been increased international cooperation in antitrust enforcement, with agencies collaborating and coordinating efforts to address cross-border competition issues. This includes cooperation agreements, information-sharing mechanisms, and coordination on merger reviews and cartel investigations.

  6. Leniency Programs: Leniency programs have been established by antitrust enforcement agencies, such as the DOJ and FTC, to encourage companies to self-report antitrust violations and cooperate with investigations. These programs offer potential immunity or reduced penalties to the first company that comes forward and provides valuable information about a cartel or anti-competitive conduct.

  7. FTC Merger Review Processes: The merger review processes of the DOJ and FTC have undergone changes and improvements over time to streamline and enhance efficiency. These changes include revisions to filing thresholds, procedural rules, and guidelines aimed at expediting reviews for mergers that are unlikely to raise significant competitive concerns.

  8. Criminal Antitrust Enforcement: There has been an increased focus on criminal antitrust enforcement, leading to more aggressive prosecution of individuals and companies engaged in cartel behavior. This includes higher fines, longer jail terms, and increased coordination between the antitrust enforcement agencies and the Department of Justice's Criminal Division.

  9. Policy Statements and Reports: The antitrust enforcement agencies periodically issue policy statements and reports that provide insights into their enforcement priorities, areas of focus, and analytical frameworks. These publications contribute to the understanding of how the agencies interpret and enforce the antitrust laws.

  10. International Cooperation and Convergence (2013): There has been a growing emphasis on international cooperation and convergence in antitrust enforcement. This includes collaboration and coordination between U.S. enforcement agencies and their international counterparts, as well as efforts to harmonize and align competition policies and practices across jurisdictions.

International bilateral agreement and cooperative arrangements:

There have been several bilateral agreements and cooperative arrangements in the field of antitrust enforcement that the United States has entered into with other countries aimed to enhance cooperation, information sharing, and coordination between antitrust authorities.

  1. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): The OECD has developed guidelines and recommendations on competition law and policy. These instruments serve as a reference for member and non-member countries, including the United States, and influence the development and implementation of competition laws. The U.S. antitrust authorities often consider and align their practices with OECD recommendations.

  2. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD): UNCTAD has conducted research and provided guidance on competition policy, including issues related to developing countries. While UNCTAD does not have binding authority, its work contributes to the global discussion on competition policy and may indirectly influence the development of antitrust laws in various countries.

  3. International Competition Network (ICN): The ICN is a network of competition authorities from around the world that promotes cooperation and convergence in competition policy and enforcement. The ICN provides a platform for discussions, capacity-building, and sharing of best practices. The U.S. antitrust authorities actively participate in ICN initiatives, and the network's work can inform and influence the evolution of U.S. antitrust laws.

  4. World Trade Organization (WTO): While the WTO primarily focuses on trade-related matters, its agreements and principles, such as those related to non-discrimination and fair competition, can have implications for antitrust laws. Disputes within the WTO can touch on competition issues and potentially influence the interpretation and implementation of antitrust laws by member countries.

  5. International trade and investment agreements: Bilateral and regional trade and investment agreements, such as free trade agreements, may contain provisions related to competition policy and antitrust. These agreements can include commitments to promote competition, prevent anti-competitive practices, and cooperate in enforcement. The negotiation and implementation of such agreements can shape the antitrust landscape in the United States

  6. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLATs): MLATs are agreements between countries that facilitate the exchange of information and evidence for criminal investigations and prosecutions. While MLATs are primarily focused on criminal matters, they can also be utilized for antitrust enforcement, particularly in cases involving cross-border cartels or anti-competitive conduct with criminal implications.

  7. Antitrust Cooperation Agreements: The United States has entered into bilateral antitrust cooperation agreements with several countries, including the European Union, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Brazil, and others. These agreements establish frameworks for cooperation, coordination, and information sharing between the respective antitrust authorities. They often cover areas such as merger review, cartel enforcement, and antitrust investigations.

  8. Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs): MoUs are non-binding agreements that outline areas of cooperation and collaboration between antitrust authorities. They typically cover matters such as exchange of information, notification of enforcement activities, and coordination of investigations. The United States has signed MoUs with various countries and regions, including China, Mexico, Chile, and others.

  9. Multilateral Cooperation: In addition to bilateral agreements, the United States participates in various multilateral cooperation initiatives in the field of antitrust enforcement. For example, through the International Competition Network (ICN), which consists of competition authorities from around the world, countries engage in discussions, share best practices, and collaborate on competition policy and enforcement issues.

  10. U.S.-Canada Competition Cooperation Framework: The United States and Canada have a longstanding cooperation framework that promotes collaboration, coordination, and information sharing between the competition authorities of both countries. This framework includes mechanisms for notification and consultation on significant cross-border matters, cooperation in enforcement activities, and coordination in merger reviews.

  11. U.S.-European Union Cooperation Agreement: The United States and the European Union (EU) have a cooperation agreement that facilitates cooperation and coordination between their respective antitrust authorities. This agreement covers areas such as information sharing, coordination of enforcement activities, and cooperation in specific cases or investigations.

  12. U.S.-Mexico Antitrust Cooperation Agreement: The United States and Mexico have a cooperation agreement that establishes a framework for collaboration and coordination in antitrust matters. It includes provisions for information exchange, coordination of enforcement activities, and cooperation in investigations and competition policy development.

  13. U.S.-China Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and China have engaged in various forms of antitrust cooperation and dialogue. While not a formal agreement, this cooperation includes efforts to exchange information, share enforcement experiences, and engage in dialogue on competition policy and enforcement practices.

  14. U.S.-Japan Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and Japan have a cooperative relationship in antitrust matters, including information sharing, coordination of enforcement activities, and cooperation in specific cases. The U.S. and Japanese antitrust authorities engage in dialogue and collaboration to promote effective enforcement and convergence in competition policy

  15. U.S.-Australia Cooperation Arrangement: The United States and Australia have a cooperation arrangement that promotes coordination and cooperation between their respective antitrust agencies. This arrangement facilitates the exchange of information, coordination in enforcement activities, and cooperation in competition advocacy.

  16. U.S.-Brazil Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and Brazil have engaged in antitrust cooperation through various mechanisms, including information sharing, technical assistance, and coordination in specific cases. The cooperation aims to enhance enforcement efforts and promote competition in both jurisdictions.

  17. U.S.-Chile Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and Chile have a cooperation agreement that promotes collaboration and coordination in the field of competition policy and enforcement. It includes provisions for information exchange, coordination of enforcement activities, and cooperation in capacity-building initiatives.

  18. U.S.-South Korea Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and South Korea have a bilateral agreement on antitrust cooperation that establishes a framework for collaboration and coordination between their respective antitrust agencies. The agreement covers areas such as information exchange, coordination in enforcement actions, and cooperation in competition advocacy.

  19. U.S.-New Zealand Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and New Zealand have engaged in antitrust cooperation through mechanisms such as information sharing, coordination in enforcement activities, and cooperation in capacity-building initiatives. The cooperation aims to foster effective enforcement and promote competition in both jurisdictions.

  20. U.S.-Switzerland Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and Switzerland have a bilateral cooperation agreement that promotes collaboration and coordination in antitrust matters. The agreement facilitates the exchange of information, coordination in enforcement activities, and cooperation in competition policy development.

  21. U.S.-Hong Kong Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and Hong Kong have a cooperation arrangement that enhances collaboration and coordination between their antitrust authorities. The arrangement includes provisions for information sharing, coordination of enforcement activities, and cooperation in competition advocacy.

  22. U.S.-Colombia Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and Colombia have engaged in antitrust cooperation through mechanisms such as information sharing, technical assistance, and coordination in specific cases. The cooperation aims to strengthen enforcement efforts and promote competition in both jurisdictions.

  23. U.S.-Peru Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and Peru have a bilateral cooperation agreement in the field of competition policy and enforcement. The agreement facilitates information exchange, coordination in enforcement activities, and cooperation in competition advocacy.

  24. U.S.-Singapore Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and Singapore have a cooperation arrangement that promotes collaboration and coordination between their respective antitrust agencies. The arrangement includes provisions for information sharing, coordination in enforcement actions, and cooperation in competition policy development.

  25. U.S.-India Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and India have engaged in antitrust cooperation through mechanisms such as information sharing, capacity-building initiatives, and coordination in specific cases. The cooperation aims to strengthen enforcement efforts and promote competition in both jurisdictions.

  26. U.S.-Argentina Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and Argentina have a bilateral cooperation agreement in the field of competition policy and enforcement. The agreement promotes collaboration, information exchange, and coordination in enforcement activities.

  27. U.S.-South Africa Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and South Africa have engaged in antitrust cooperation through various mechanisms, including information sharing, technical assistance, and coordination in specific cases. The cooperation aims to enhance enforcement efforts and promote competition in both jurisdictions.

  28. U.S.-Nigeria Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and Nigeria have a bilateral cooperation agreement that facilitates collaboration and coordination in the field of competition policy and enforcement. The agreement includes provisions for information exchange, coordination in enforcement actions, and cooperation in competition advocacy.

  29. U.S.-United Arab Emirates (UAE) Antitrust Cooperation: The United States and the UAE have engaged in antitrust cooperation through mechanisms such as information sharing, capacity-building initiatives, and coordination in specific cases. The cooperation aims to strengthen enforcement efforts and promote competition in both jurisdictions.

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